Lecture 4: Film Theory - The Auteur

The Auteur is a film maker where the director characterizes the creative influence of the film, film makers considered famous auteurs are Hitchcock, Stanley and Kubrick

Auteur is french for author and the director was celebrated for there creative influence upon a film

Auteurs are seen as more than just film directors, they are akin to artists, they create original work, they possess creative control of the film, many auteurs have there own film language which is distinctive to them and their films, Auteurs are known for creating the conventions of genre rather than following them, they either break the rules or set new ones

Auteur Theory by Sarris 1962 - He spoke about the technical competence of film directors, the distinguishable personality within there films creating a ‘style’ which is recognizable to there films, as an audience you can instantly recognize an Auteurs film, he also spoke about auteurs use of interior meaning

The technical competence of the director - They have understanding of expressionist lighting to convey or create meaning and emotion, Story telling within the silent era of films, in which the story was told visually rather than through the spoken word, visual elements and composition craft story. The use of the subjective camera where by the audience see the story or film from the perspective of a character, Montage and clipping a craft pioneered by Hitchcock, where by clips or segments of different film are quickly cut together to create tension or other feeling within the audience

Hitchcock - 50 decade career within the film industry and is known for being a master of suspense, he ability to control and manipulate the audience's emotions and being a pioneer in the thriller/horror genre. He began in 1920’s using his skills as an artists to create film sets, he undertook an apprenticeship along side Graham Cutts at Gainsborough a prominent film school, shortly after he travelled to Germany to work along side film masters such as F.W. Murnau and german expressionists

Hitchcock created and master tensions within his film through the way he cut and montaged clips together, he said himself that the audience is aware of what is going to happen, but it is when it is going to happen that matters and therefore builds tension within the audience

F.W Murnau film Nosferatu, 1922 becomes an influence and guidance within Hitchcock owns films and Murnau use of shadow is later replicated in Hitchcock’s Vertigo

The Lodger, 1927 became Hitchcock’s first feature length film, the film featured heavy use of stage makeup to enhance the dramatic feel of the film, the movie poster for the film was influenced by cubism

Hitchcock makes use of the subjective camera within his film ‘Champagne’ 1928, in which Hitchcock shoots films through glasses and peep holes through doors, a seen of the film features couple kisses which the audience see through a glass, this creates an element of mystery and secrecy within the audience as well as dramatic irony.

‘Jamaica Inn’ again features Hitchcock shooting scene through a spy hole, this became a common element of Hitchcock films whereby the audience felt as if they were spying on characters within the film

The dolly zoom, created by Hitchcock, is an in camera special effect, which creates an unsettling feeling within the audience by undermining the normal visual perceptions of film, it also has many other names such as the ‘Hitchcock Zoom’ the technique was most famously used within the film ‘Vertigo’. The shot is used within high buildings or places to create a sick feeling or feeling of vertigo

Hitchcock famously said ‘What is drama, but life with the dull bits cut out?’ here Hitchcock is describing his technique of cutting and montage. Hitchcock likens the process of cutting to orchestration and the mix of loud and soft notes to create emotion as well as the size of the shot to evoke emotion, in particularly shock, Hitchcock was known for being a generous man, he shared is knowledge of the craft with other, he was also good a communicating his knowledge and experience to others

The director’s personality within a film - The directors use of expressionism and how the evoke emotion within the audience through use of form. Hitchcock was especially known for Cameo appearances within all his films. Hitchcock also famously used visual clues and props to tell the story with little dialogue some of his best scene features minimal dialogue. Hitchcock also continuously used the same actors which became snonomous with his films. Hitchcock also has an obscure obsession with blondes, many of great works feature blond protagonists - he once said ‘blond’s make the best victims They’re like virgin white snow that shows u the bloody footprints’. Overall Hitchcock is best known for the way in which is crafts suspense in his films.

Hitchcock creates his suspense when the audience is aware of a certain danger but the characters are not, Hitchcock said ‘there’s no terror in the bang of the gun only the anticipation of it’ suggesting Hitchcock believes timing is the key to creating good suspense. Most of Hitchcock’s early work created suspense and terror with little splatter on the screen.

Expressionism within Hitchcock’s films - as a director he was not concerned with realism or naturalism, Hitchcock’s ideal goal was to create and evoke emotion within his audiences, Hitchcock’s passion was to replicate the same ‘pleasure’ people have when waking up from a nightmare

Vertigo, a film by Alfred Hitchcock is seen as his masterpiece and perhaps for his use of voyeurism, in that nothing is ever what it seems, fear of heights, inability to save the girl and these experiences turing into nightmares are elements explored within ‘Vertigo’

Other features of ‘Vertigo’ include the protagonists decent into madness creating trauma within the audience. Furthermore there is a repetition of green throughout the film and green is symbolic of ever living and always green, similar to madeline and judy within the film being one ever living character. Colour is used by Hitchcock in an expressionistic way

Hitchcock is aware of the link between film making and art and hence creates a intwining narrative between colour and story telling, Hitchcock also use the silhouette to create tension and drama (similar to the silhouette in Nosfarto)

Hitchcock uses Interior meaning within his films which stems from his introduction to psycho analysis by David O Selznick, Hitchcock becomes fascinated with this ideology, He created the films, ‘Spellbound’ ‘Notorious’ and ‘Rebecca’ as a result of this new knowledge

Hitchcock also collaborated with artist Salvador Dali exploring how dreams can access the unconscious mind and also eyes - looking, viewing, perceptions but not always a pleasant viewing experience when you do look

Birds - Birds appear in many Hitchcock films, the are a motif of sabotage within his films they appear in ‘Jamaica Inn’, ‘The Lady Vanishes’ and ‘Psycho’ the use of bird also implies impending doom.

Hitchcock also self proclaimed his own fears of high places, small children, police men and that his next movie will not be as good as his last, these fears maybe present in his own films, fear of height seen within vertigo

There are a set of themes that Hitchcock continually visits within his films, ordinary people caught in extraordinary situations, mistaken identity, murder and madness, espionage, strong sexual themes and exploration of the darkest corners of the human mind

However the Auteur represents a series of films made by directors who were mostly male, as a portfolio of films was need to be given money to create a film a portfolio of which many women did not have.

It also disguises the work of others such as cinematographer, writer, sound and set design, it is also seen as a capitalist device by which films are sold by there director rather than the quality of the film which undermines the work of other directors.

In the future we must given birth to the reader at the death the Author, an analogy in reference to literature but can be translated to film in which the director must become transparent rather than the voice of the film.

Bad Breath in Dogs Survey

Using the online survey tool, SurveyMonkey, I created a personalised survey targeting owners of dogs and dogs who have suffered from Halitosis. I distributed the survey via online social networks and online dog and pet forums, the results are collated bellow. 

1. Has your dog ever suffered from bad breath (Halitosis)?
Yes 82%

No 27%

2. As the dog owner how concerned were you about the problem?
Not Concerned 36%

Slightly Concerned 9%

Quite Concerned 36%

Very Concerned 18%

3. Did you contact your local vet about the problem?
Yes 27%

No 81%

4. Was the bad breath caused by another disease?
Yes 54%

No 45%

5. If any, what action did you take to attempt to fix the problem?
Begin brushing your dogs teeth or brush them more frequently 18%

Feeding your dog treats that could improve breath odour 63%

Changing the type of food you feed your dog 18%

Visit the vet more regularly to check for underlying medical issues 18%

*[Primary] [Quantitive]

Dog and Cat Population UK

In 2011, the UK dog population is around 8 million.

In 2008 this could be broken down into 75% pedigree, 11% Cross Breeds and 14% Mixed Breeds (There are 209 breeds of dog recognised by the Kennel Club)

Dogs by Breed (2008)
Numbers of dogs by breed/ million 2008

  • Labrador (0.6) 
  • Border Collie (0.6) 
  • Jack Russell Terrier (0.5) 
  • Yorkshire Terrier (0.4) 
  • German Shepard (0.3) 
  • Bischon Frise (0.2) 
  • Rottweiler/ Dalmation (0.1) 
  • Cocker Spaniel/ Shitzu (0.1) 
  • Labradoodle/ Golden Retriever (0.1) 
  • Geryhound (incorporating Whippets)/ Chihuahua (0.1) 

In 2008 the main source in which owners aquire their dogs are:
  • Rescue Centre: 32%
  • Friend/acquiantance: 25% 
  • Recommended Breeder: 16% 
  • Private Ad: 16% 
  • Internet: 8% 
  • Pet Shop: 7% 

In 2011 the UK Cat population is around 8 million

In 2008 92% of cats are moggies or 'non pedigree' (There are around 35-40 breeds of cat recognised by the Feline Advisory Bureau)

In 2008 the main reasons people keep cats as pets are for:

  • Companionship: 27% 
  • Love: 31% 
  • Easy maintainance: 7% 
  • Gets on with other species: 3%

Pet Owning Households
In the UK, almost 1 in 2 households own a pet
(46% = 12M), with around a total 22 million pets owned (excluding fish).

In 2011 the percentage of households owning a pet in the UK were broken down as follows;

  • Dog: 22% 
  • Cat: 18% 
  • Indoor Fish: 9% 
  • Outdoor Fish: 6% 
  • Rabbits: 2.7%
  • Indoor Birds: 2%
  • Guinea Pigs: 1.5%
  • Hamster: 1.4% Domestic Fowl: 0.6% 
  • Horses/Ponies: 0.2% 
  • Tortoises/turtles: 0.6% 
  • Gerbils: 0.1%
  • Snakes: 0.4%
  • Lizards: 0.6% 
  • Rats: 0.4%
* [Secondary] [Quantitive] PFMA

Ways In Which Halitosis Can Be Cured

Brush your dog’s teeth
Brushing their teeth regularly helps reduce bad odor coming out of your dog’s mouth. There are toothbrushes that are specially made for dogs that can be purchased from veterinary clinics or pet shops. A finger brush is a specially designed toothbrush for dogs that makes brushing their teeth much easier. A finger brush can reach areas in your dog’s mouth that are difficult to clean with a regular toothbrush.

Use dog toothpaste to brush their teeth
Toothpastes specially formulated for dogs are proven harmless when swallowed. They come in various flavor such as beef, chicken, and vanilla. Be careful not to use the same kind of toothpaste that you use when you brush their teeth. Some toothpastes used by humans can be harmful to dogs.

Buy dog mints and mouthwash
Mints and mouthwash are great alternatives for getting rid of bad dog breath. They are effective in preventing tartar buildup inside your pet’s mouth. They are sold in various flavors that your dog will love. Plaque sprays and chew toys also work against tartar buildup.

Watch your dog’s diet
Bad dog breath can result from eating unhealthy food. Your dog’s diet is not only important to its health but in preventing bad dog breath as well. Some dogs, if left unwatched, tend to eat non-edible stuff such as plants and soil. Ensure that your dog only eats dog food and drinks clean water. Dirty food contains bacteria that will live in the dog’s mouth, causing bad breath.

Ingesting unhealthy and dirty food will cause diseases with bad breath as a symptom. These diseases include gastrointestinal disease, mouth tumors, dog teeth gingivitis, or life-threatening kidney diseases.

Your dog’s health is your responsibility. So keep a close watch on what your dog eats. Clean your surroundings of dirty things that your dog can have close contact with. If your dog has a severe bad breath problem, you can go to your local vet for medicine that can get rid of the smell. If you can afford it, take your dog to the vet for regular dental cleaning.

Visit your vet more regularly

Visit your vet at least once or twice a year to check on your pet’s teeth before the build up becomes unmanageable. This should be done more frequently for older pets. Use regular heart worm blood test to seek your vet’s help to do a general check up on your dogs and seek advice if you should get their teeth cleaned.

Add Biotene to your dog's drinking water
Biotene is a water additive that has no color, no smell and no taste. Not only does Biotene help freshen your dog's breath but it helps remove plaque and inhibits the growth of odor causing bacteria. The suggested usage is 4 pumps per quart of water for the first two weeks. Thereafter reduce to 2 pumps per quart of water. The usage of Biotene is particularly beneficial for dogs that refuse to have their teeth brushed. It is safe for daily ingestion. This is veterinarian recommended and was prescribed by my vet.

Chew on raw bones
Allow your pet to chew on raw bones at least once a month to prevent tartar build up. Regular chew on raw bones will avoid dental visits at the vet. Do not feed your dog cooked or chicken bones as cooked, and chicken bones cooked may splinter when chewed and can cause potential damage to intestinal linings of your pet. If your pet has never eaten raw bones, monitor and ensure that they are able to handle it well and not swallow the bones whole which can cause choking which is dangerous. Most dogs naturally are able to handle raw bones well. To be safe, get the huge beef or mutton bone where they cannot chew it down but use it for exercising the jaw and cleaning their teeth.

[Secondary] Wiki How / Dog Bad Breath

Other Diseases Linked With Halitosis

Usually halitosis has oral causes, although sometimes it can be caused by other disease processes. These include:
  • Gingivitis (inflammation of the gums)
  • Periodontitis (inflammation of the tissue that surrounds the tooth)
  • Abscessed tooth or teeth
  • Bone or hair stuck in mouth
  • Oral ulceration
  • Foreign bodies in the mouth (such as plant material or grass awns)
  • Oral neoplasia (tumors of the mouth)
  • Lung diseases, such as lung cancer
  • Severe kidney disease

What to Watch For

  • Oral discharge
  • Oral pain
  • Bloody oral discharge
  • Drooling
  • Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
  • Difficulty eating
  • Depression 
  • Diagnosis

Veterinary care should include diagnostic tests to determine the underlying cause of the bad breath and help guide subsequent treatment recommendations. Some tests may include:
  • A complete medical history and physical examination
  • A complete oral exam, which may require a brief anesthetic
  • Periodontal probing (a blunt probe that is used to check the gum/tooth interface) to identify gum and periodontal diseases
  • Full-mouth radiographs (X-rays) with a dental machine 

Optimal therapy of any serious or persistent medical condition depends on establishing the correct diagnosis. There are numerous potential causes of halitosis and before any treatment can be recommended, it is important to identify the underlying cause. Initial therapy should be aimed at the underlying cause. This treatment may include:
  • Removal of foreign object if present
  • Treatment of any oral tumors as needed
  • Periodontal therapy and root planing (cleaning/scraping the teeth under the gums) 

Home Care
Home care recommendations will depend on the underlying cause of the problem. Some steps that you can take to help eliminate your dog's bad breath include:
  • Brushing your dog's teeth daily. Tooth brushes/finger brushes and special toothpastes are available from your veterinarian.
  • Spraying 0.12 percent chlorhexidine (prescribed by your veterinarian) into your dog's mouth once a day for seven to fourteen days.
  • Following dietary considerations recommended by your veterinarian. Special diets that may be beneficial include Hill's Prescription Diet T/D® or Eukanuba Restricted-Calorie Rewards®.
  • Evaluation by your veterinarian if the bad breath persists.

[Secondary] Pet Place

Overview of Bad Breath in Dogs and Cats

What Is Bad Breath?
We all know bad breath—also known as halitosis—when we smell it. Bad breath is the result of a build-up of odor-producing bacteria in your dog’s mouth, lungs or gut. Persistent bad breath can indicate that your dog needs better dental care or that something is wrong in his gastrointestinal tract, liver or kidneys. In all cases, halitosis is a red flag that should be investigated.

What Is Bad Breath Caused By?
Most often, canine bad breath is caused by dental or gum disease, and certain dogs—particularly small ones—are especially prone to plaque and tartar. However, persistent bad breath can also indicate larger medical problems in the mouth, respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract or organs.

How Can I Determine The Cause of My Dog’s Bad Breath?
Your veterinarian is the best person to pinpoint the cause. A physical examination and laboratory work may be performed. Be ready to answer questions about your dog’s diet, oral hygiene, exercise habits and general behavior.

When Is It Time To See The Vet?
If your dog’s breath suddenly has an unusual smell, please consult your veterinarian. The following cases can signal to medical problems that need immediate treatment.
Unusually sweet or fruity breath could indicate diabetes, particularly if your dog has been drinking and urinating more frequently than usual.
Breath that smells like urine can be a sign of kidney disease.
An unusually foul odor accompanied by vomiting, lack of appetite, and yellow-tinged corneas and/or gums could signal a liver problem.

How Is Bad Breath Treated?
Treatment depends on your vet’s diagnosis. If plaque is the culprit, your dog might require a professional cleaning. If it’s an issue of diet, you might have to change your dog’s regular food. If the cause is gastrointestinal or an abnormality in your dog’s liver kidneys or lungs, please consult your vet about steps you should take.

How Can I Prevent My Dog From Having Bad Breath?

  • Many people assume that bad breath in dogs, especially at a certain age, is a “given”—but that’s not the case. In fact, being proactive about your pup’s oral health will not only make your life together more pleasant, it’s smart preventive medicine. 
  • Bring your dog in for regular checkups to make sure he has no underlying medical issues that may cause halitosis. 
  • Make sure your vet monitors and tracks the state of your dog’s teeth and breath. 
  • Feed your dog a high-quality, easy-to-digest food. 
  • Brush your dog’s teeth frequently—every day is ideal. (Please be sure to use toothpaste formulated for dogs as human toothpaste can upset a canine’s stomach.) 
  • Provide hard, safe chew toys that allow your dog’s teeth to be cleaned by the natural process of chewing 
  • Give your dog well–researched treats formulated to improve breath odor. 
  • Discuss home-use oral health products with your veterinarian to see if there’s a type he or she recommends

* [Secondary] ASPCA / WebMD

Initial Bibliography Using Harvard Referencing System

Benton, C. & Benton, T. (1975) 'Form and Function', London, Granada Publishing [745.5]
I have chosen this book although it primarily focuses on architecture elements of the book do explore the principle of 'form follows function' within design. I feel the book will offer deeper insight in the dramatically changing attitudes towards design during the period of modernism. 

Garratt, C. & Rodrigues, C. (2010) 'Modernism A Graphic Guide', United States of America, Totem Books [306.1]
This book provides an overview of modernism as a broad subject, although not in detail the boom summaries the events of modernism into a compact dialogue of the subject. This book will inform my overall understanding of modernism. 

Greenhalgh, P. (1990) 'Modernism in Design', London, Reaktion Books [745.2]
This book is a collection of essays and academic writing on the subject of modernism within design this book provides in depth detail and argument on the subject of modernism as well as offering varying analytical view points the debate of modernism. 

Remington, R.R. with Bodenstedt, L. (2003) 'American Modernism Graphic Design 1920 to 1960', London, Laurence King Publishing [741.604]
This book provides a more a visual reference to modernism with american during the period of modernity, throughout the book it explores the changes seen within design across a range of graphic media. 

Will, C. (2006) 'Modernism Designing a New World 1914-1939', London, V&A Publications [745.2]
Modernism designing a new world is a definitive collection of the changing world of design across a range of design practices from furniture to architecture. 

Illustrator Workshop/ Expanding Lines In Typography

Within this typeface it is interesting how the expanse the line/stroke is not seen within an individual letterform but across the typeface and the expanse is only seen when the typeface is used as a typeface. I will consider how my letterforms work individually and how they will be used as a typeface.

This typeface works by merging each letterform into each other with the continuation of one line, as area for experimentation within illustrator could be to explore how the letterform can expand into each other. 

The expanding lines within this type are confined to each letterform, different weighted strokes convey the expanse. Different stroke weights co uld be an area to explore as the weights get either thinner or thicker this conveys a sense of expanse. 

Here the concept of expanse has been explored both in 2D and in 3D, 2D lines expand across the surfaces of the typeface and the typeface expands to create 3D letterforms. Exploring how a typeface could become three dimensional is also something I could explore within Illustrator.

This typeface expands across the format in which it is presented, simples lines have been in differing directions to create the letterforms. Exploring how my typeface expands within the given format of A1 is an area to consider.

The Five Most Important Aesthetic Qualities

To determine my own set of five aesthetic qualities as groups we analysed our series of five images, from these images we discussed what element of these images we felt more aesthetically please us, then within different groups we were given a series of images another peer had collected and we had never seen before, using these images we were given 5 seconds, 15 seconds and 20 seconds to study to images, after each time allotment we noted down the word that best described our visual and aesthetic understanding of the image from this task it became evident that the longer you study an image the more your opinion of it is likely to change either for better or worse. After further discussion with the partner who's work I looked at we created a list of five aesthetic qualities I personally felt were most important in an image being aesthetically please to me

1) Inventiveness 
2) Wittiness 
3) Vivid
4) Deceptive
5) Playfulness

Five Aspirations That Will Change My Aesthetic Understanding Of The World

1) Learn a new language
2) See the northern lights 
3) Bath in a Hot Spring 
4) Multicultural Experiences - Visiting countries which have strong cultural differences to that of our own, such as Japan or Africa 
5) Zorbing 

Five Aesthetically Pleasing Images

Proverbially Yours 2/ Medical Graphic Design

This medical packaging demonstrates that medical packaging is simple, effective and information and lacks deceptions and mimics that of modernist feel. I should perhaps consider how simple I can make my mail shot as this is what my target audience will be used to interacting with. 

Here pastel blue colour schemes have been used combined with a contrasting dark more vivid colour, this is an effective way of making type and information stand out and still maintain a simple clinical and clean feel to the design, I should consider using these colours within my own work. 

Again pastel colours haves been used, this is appearing familiar within medical graphic design, it's not harsh on the eyes nor bright and intrusive. Type is well spaces and readable, it will be important to consider the positioning of type and ensure it's legible and readable and also minimal in content. 

More use of a blue colour scheme and also use a sans-serif type which makes the design appear simple and clinical, sans serif typefaces are also more legible and have a more professional and informative aesthetic appeal, which is the ideology I want to promote within my mail shot. 

I slightly different aesthetic design to the other work I had research, perhaps because of the differing target audiences however the blue colour scheme has remained prominent. Furthermore this also reaffirms the minimalistic approach to the amount of information and also silhouette style visuals to convey complex forms, simplifying the visuals within my mail shot will be crucial to it's success and ensuring the visuals are understood by the target audience. 

Use of a lowercase typeface can also be effective within medical graphic design as it is less abrupt and strong, it is calmer and more approachable to the audience, I will consider how I incorporate a lowercase typeface into my mail shot as it is most likely my target audience will interact with graphic design that makes use of using lower case rather than upper case. 

Proverbially Yours 2/ Colour Schemes

To research colours form potential use within my mail shot as inspiration I focused on the colours that we traditionally associate within such as pale blues and greens as affirmed by me research into medical graphic design. I have researched a series of tonal palettes with different shades of greens and blues, that varying from lighter and darker tones, as the brief allows for only two colours a dark tone set against a lighter would be high impact, effective and readable. 

Proverbially Yours 2/ Mail Shot Considerations

What do I want to say and how do I want to say it?
My given proverb is practice makes perfect, this links well with my profession of Chiropractor as although Chiropractors go through at least 6 years of training and education before becoming independent Chiropractors, the principle of them continuing to practice what they do to become better is still a key philosophy. There I want to inform Chiropractors that in continuing to practice Chiropractics they will become better at what they do and eventually they more they practice, they will become perfect in the act of spinal manipulations and by practicing they also develop an increasing understanding of there practice and the more they practice the better they will be able to aid their patients. Therefore I want to send out a clear message that Chiropractors should 'Practice your practice' as 'Practice makes perfect'. To deliver the message I will be addressing Chiropractors directly with an immediate message of 'practice your practice' rather than posing a question to my target audience I am instructing them to continue doing what they do, as this will reap the reward of perfection of at their practice. 

What language would be appropriate? 
As I am addressing and talking to medical professional formal language is the most appropriate. I have also kept my message short and simple and encouraging the recipient to visit a website for more information, the simplicity of the message should encourage the recipient to seek out further information from elsewhere. 

Proverbially Yours 2/ British Chiropractic Association

British Chiropractic Association

The British Chiropractic Association (BCA) is the largest and longest-standing association for chiropractors in the UK. It was founded in 1925 and has a membership comprising over 50% of the UK’s registered chiropractors. The BCA only accepts members who have graduated from a nationally or internationally-recognised college of chiropractic education, after a minimum of four years full-time training and ensures its chiropractors maintain high standards of conduct, practice, education and training.

The BCA was a founder member of the European Chiropractors Union and the World Federation of Chiropractic. All BCA members are covered by a high quality professional indemnity insurance and the Association operates a robust professional standards and complaints management process.

Proverbially Yours 2/ Understanding Chiropractics

What is a Chiropractor? 
Chiropractors are medical practitioners that primarily focus on the realignment and healing of the spine and adjoining bones without the need for medicine, it is often used as complimentary treatment. The main techniques used by a Chiropractor's involve mania therapy and manipulations of the spine from a deformed state. 

Facts about Chiropractors:
  • MYTH: Chiropractors crack your bones
  • Chiropractic was founded in 1895 by Daniel D. Palmer as an alternative health care discipline to medical practice
  • Chiropractic today is the third largest primary health care profession in the western world 
  •  Chiropractic education consists of a minimum of two years of university study in pre-med sciences, followed by four years of full time chiropractic school
  • Chiropractic has always presented itself as a natural and conservative source of health care, offering an alternative in some cases to the medical domain of prescribing medication and performing operations
  • Chiropractic's central interest is the relationship between impaired position/movement of spinal vertebrae and the nerve system, and the effect of this on health
  • Chiropractic utilizes a "hands on" active approach. The principle treatment is adjustment/ manipulation of the spine and supportive soft-tissue techniques
  • Chiropractic care is safe. The risk of serious injury following chiropractic treatment is considered remote - less than 0.01% according to medical studies
  • The benefits of chiropractic you can look forward to are many: effective pain relief, restored freedom of movement, correction of the underlying problem, return to work and recreational activities, enhanced athletic performance, prevention of spinal decay, and improved overall health. 

Modernist and Post Modern Graphic Design

Post Modern Graphic Design / Christopher Cox / 2008
This poster is an example of post modern graphic design as it uses a mixed media style, in which many techniques has been combined such as digital manipulation as well as physical media like paint. The language used is satirical and merges the boundaries between high and low brow design and art. The poster is also making the statement that modernism didn't save us, a typical view seen in post modern art.

Modernist Graphic Design / Josef Muller-Brockmann / 1958
This poster was designed in the modernist era and is part of a series which tries to visualise a series of music events which each showcase a different style of music. This piece of design is typically modernist as uses rules and guides and is absent of decoration, it is minimalist and achieves the function in the simplest way possible. 


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